In their current formulation and practice, discontinuities between the fields of education, training and work create many problems for learners and workers of any age. Education, training and work systems operate on the assumption that an individual follows a straight and linear path from basic education, to professional training, and on to work; and that each of these processes takes place in places and spaces dedicated to either education or training or work alone. And yet, this path is far from the norm among marginalized populations in the South and North and are particularly atypical of those who have never been to school or have left schooling: those without vocational training or employment opportunities, unemployed graduates, and youth and adults without basic education. These discontinuities thus create and reinforce exclusion and inequality for already excluded groups.

To address these problems, we propose the notion of a Continuum between education, training and work.


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